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第十四讲 轻便句、并列句和复合句

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生龙活虎。考纲必要

翻译技艺中的“参合指”

  语法知识点1

考察大纲供给考生能科学判别句子的类型、解析句子结构、结合语境和句意选用十三分的三番五次词语、决断主语和从句的不利语序、稳当选用主句和从句谓语动词的时态。

且看它们有多主要,看图别看本身:

  1.as…as.。。指导的相比级:(1)“as +形容词或副词原级+
as+被相比对象”结构。例句: He studies as hard as you.
他像你同豆蔻梢头学习努力。

二。命题导向

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  (2)在否定句或难题句中可用 not so…as…. 例句:He can not run so/as
fast as you. 他没你跑得快。

高等学校统招考试对简易句、并列句和复合句的考试首要总结:句子的构造、连词的选取、从句与主句的谓语动词的时态、主语和从句的语序、一些习贯用语和极度的句式应用。

木色圈出风华正茂部分~~

  2.only引导的倒装句型:only +状语
(或状语从句)位于句首时,句子部分倒装。 

三。复习要点

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  例句: Only by diligence and honesty can one succeed in life. 
独有矢志不移、正直,一位在生活中技巧得逞。 

1.归纳句、并列句和复合句

字不主要,看图~~

  注意:但 only修饰主语时,不倒装。例句: Only that girl knew how to
work out the problem.  独有那位女人知道怎样解那道题。

① 句子种类三种分类法

什么人通晓as、v+ing、with,什么人就得练神功。那七个职能词怎么用啊?且看下文,小编只是个搬运工。有亟待的爱人,动动你的指头,复制、粘贴、打字与印刷。小编是您的好对象曾沐!

  3.wish辅导的设想语气:wish
前边的从句,今世表与实际相反的事态,或意味着以往不太大概完结的意思时,其宾语从句的动词方式为: 

依据句子的用途,斯洛伐克(Slovak)语的句子可分:叙述句(明显、否定)、疑问句(通常、特殊、接收、反意)、祈使句、惊叹句等七种。

文章结尾处有彩蛋~~不谢!

  ⑴表示对前些天景色的杜撰:从句动词用过去式或过去实行式表示,be
的千古式用were.   

根据句子的组织可分:轻松句并列句和复合句二种。

一、as的用法

  I wish I knew the answer to the question.   
笔者愿意知晓这些主题材料的答案。(缺憾不知底。) 

轻便易行句只有三个主语或并列主语和二个谓语或并列谓语。并列句由并列连词and,
but,
or,so等)或总局(;)把多个或五个以上的简易句连在一同构成。复合句:含有一个或二个上述从句的语句。复合句富含:状语从句名词性从句(主语从句、宾语从句、表语从句和同位语从句)和定语从句等三种。

1.as用作连词教导岁月状语从句

  ⑵代表对过去景况的虚构:从句动词用had +过去分词。 

② 并列排在一条线句的归类

as与when,while都以指点时间状语从句的专门项目连词,含义都以“当……的时候”。

  I wish (that) I hadn’t wasted so much time. 
笔者后悔不应当浪费这么多日子。( 实际晚春经浪费掉了。) 

并称句指把五个相近主要的语句连接在联合,句子之间常用and, not only…but
also…, neither…nor…, then等并称连词连接。

但它们有区别

  ⑶代表对以往的无理意愿:谓语动词情势为“would/ should/ could/ might
+动词原形”。在此种气象下,主句的主语与从句的主语无法平等,因为主句的主语所企望的从句动作能否实现,决意于从句主语的姿态或希望(非动作名词除此之外)
。 

意味着接纳涉及常用的连词有:or, either…or…, otherwise等

用when时,从句的动作能够与主句的动作同期发出,也足以先于主句的动作产生;

  I wish it would stop raining.  但愿雨能止住。 

表示转会关系常用的连词有:but, still, however, yet, while, when等。

用while时,从句的动作为意气风发经过,主句动作与从句动作同期扩充或在从句动作进度中发生;

  注意:若wish 后的宾语从句中用
would,能够象征央求,日常意味着说话人的相当慢或不满。

意味着因果关系常用的连词有:so, for, therefore等。

用as时,主句和从句的动作同不经常间发生,具备继续的意义。

  例句:I wish you would be quiet.  笔者期望您安然一些。 

2.状语从句:

例如:

  4.it情势宾语:和it 作方式主语肖似,  大家常用it 来作方式宾语,
把真的的宾语从句放在句末, 这种地方更是出未来带复合宾语的句子中。

(1)状语从句的分类

(1)It was snowing when he arrived at the construction site.

  例句:He has made it clear that he will not give in.
他申明他不会投降。 

状语从句平时修饰主句的动词或任何句子,由从属连词教导,从属连词在从句中不辜负责句子成分。依据状语从句所发布的两样含义和作用,可分为时间、地方、原因、条件、指标、结果、妥胁、相比较、形式等状语从句。

她达到工地时,天正在下雪。

  5.The+比较级,the+比较级  表示“越….。。越….。。”。

(2)连接状语从句的用语

(2)He was watching TV while his mother was cooking.

  例句:The more scared we are, the stronger the difficulty will
become。大家越惊恐困难,困难就能够变得越强盛。

日子状语从句:when, whenever每当……,after, before, as, as soon as,
hardly/ scarcely…when…, no sooner…than.。.风流浪漫……就……,while, till,
until, since, once。名词词组the first time第贰回,last
time最终一回,every/each time每趟,the next time后一次,the next
day第二天, the moment, the minute, the second, the instant
风度翩翩……就……;副词immediately, instantly, directly等也可作连词使用。

她阿娘做饭时他在看电视。

  语法知识点2

原因状语从句:because, since, as, now that。

(3) You will grow wiser as you grow older.

  1. 宾语从句:日常难点句做宾语,引进if或whether

地方状语从句:where,wherever(不论这里)。

您会趁机年纪的增进而进一步聪明。

  例句: I want to know if he will join us in the discussion?

拗不过状语从句: no matter who/whom/what/which/how/when/where, though,
although, as, even if /even though, whatever, whoever, however,
wherever, whenever等。

2.as用作连词教导缘由状语从句

  2. 缘由状语从句:since指引的

标准状语从句: if, unless, as/so long as(假若;只要),in case (万意气风发);
on condition that(借使), suppose, supposing, providing, provide。

as,because,since都足以代表因果关系,连接原因状语从句,含义是“因为,由于”。

  例句: Don’t eat too much sugar since it is bad for your health。

目标状语从句:in order that (为了),so that (以便)。

但它们有区别

  3. 否定词前置倒装:scarcely…when。.

正如状语从句:(not) as/so…as…,than…, the more…the more…(越……越……)
指点。

because表示的话音最强;

  例句: Scarcely had he arrived at home when it began to rain。

方法状语从句:as(正如;根据),as if/as though (好像)辅导。

as平日位于句首,语气较弱,较口语化;

  4. If虚构条件句

结果状语从句: so that (结果是), so/such…that (如此……以至于)。

since常常用在书面语中,表示多为对方已知的、或稍加剖析便可获知的案由,偶然可译作”既然”。

  从句 主句
跟现在事实相反 一般过去式(be用were) would/should/might/could +动原
跟过去事实相反 had+done would/should/might/could+have done
跟将来事实相反 should+动原;were to do sth would/should/might/could +动原

(3)从句中的语序

例如:

  5. 宾语从句:放在介词前边,作介词的宾语。

复合句中国和东瀛常接纳汇报语序。可是,在上边包车型地铁二种状态下,状语从句多采纳倒装语序:

(1) He will succeed because he is in earnest.

  例句:I know nothing about him except that he used to work in
Shanghai。

①当连词as,
though连接退让状语从句时,作表语的名词、形容词、动词日常置于句首,构成都部队分倒装语序。比方:

她必然会马到功成,因为他很认真。

  6.状语从句轻巧(分词作者状语):从句的主语和状语从句的主语风度翩翩致,状从轻便选择分词作者状语。例句:

Much as I have traveled, I have never seen anyone who’s as capable as
John。

(2) Since you are so sure of ithe”ll believe you.

  (Because) being short of money, we can’t afford a TV set. =Because
we are short of money, we can’t afford a TV set。

Try as she might, Carol couldn’t get the door open。

既然你对此如此有把握,他会相信您的。  

  语法知识点3

Strange though it may seem, I like housework。

(3) As rain has fallen, the air is cooler.

  1.并列句:由and, or , but连接的五个句子成为并列句。

②在so/such…that.。.结果状语从句中,so+形容词/副词或such+名词置于句首时,主句接纳部分倒装语序。比方:

因为下过雨,空气比较舒服。

  2.省略句 /倒装:so/系动词/助动词/情态动词 +sb
表示“前面几个情状适用于世世代代”。例句:

So successful was her business that Marie was able to set up new
branches elsewhere.

3.as作连词教导拗可是状语从句

  You are a student, so am I。

Such was the force of the explosion that windows were blown out。

as与although (或though),however (或no matter
how)等都得以教导迁就状语从句,含义是“虽然,尽管”。

  3.定语从句 who指点的约束性定从。例句:

③在hardly/scarcely…when…, no
sooner…than.。.句式中,把hardly/scarcely/no
sooner置于句首时,第一个分句选拔局地倒装语序,即把第二个分句用陈说语序。举例:

但它们有区别

  Do you remember the girl who taught us English
?你还记得教大家乌克兰语的不得了女孩吧?

Scarcely had he sat down when there was a knock at the door。

although语气稍正式些,可放在句首,也可放在句中,主句中不能够再用but,但能够用yet;

  5.倒装:否定词seldom前移,句子倒装。例句:Seldom did he speak。

④ however与形容词、副词一齐带领妥协状语从句,句子采纳陈说语序。举个例子:

as所表示的语气较强,引导的低头状语从句用倒装语序;

  4.宾语从句:whether的用法。例句:I wonder if/whether it is going to
rain tomorrow。

However amusing the story is, I have to put it away and focus my
attention on study this week。

however指引妥协状语从句时,它的前面可跟形容词或副词,也要用倒装语序。

  5.不定式做定语。例句:The only way to solve our problems will
continue to be rejected。

⑤ 在the
+相比较级the+比较级句式中,只是把形容词或副词置于句首,句子依然使用汇报语序。举个例子:Education
is about learning and the more you learn, the more equipped for life you
are。

例如:

  6.原因状从:now that的用法。now that 表示 “既然”。与 since
的分裂之处在于,now that
引出的必得是贰个新面世的真相或气象,如若如故依旧,和过去看待并不曾变动,则毫不
now that 指导。

(4)从句和主句中谓语动词的时态

(1) Although he is quite old, he still jogs every day.

  例句:Now that we have all the materials ready, we should begin the
new task at
once。既然我们把具有资料都盘算好了,大家理应及时带头那项新的办事。

在复合句中,主句和从句的谓语动词时态常常遵照以下的准则:

他即便年纪相当大,依旧每一天慢跑。

  7. 原因状从:for的用法。由because
指导的从句倘使放在句末,且后面有逗号,则足以用并列连词 for
来替代。但只要不是注解直接原因,而是四种情况再说预计,就只好用 for
。例句:He is absent today, because/for he is ill.
他不久前没来,因为他生病了。

①象征“同期”意义的连词as, when, as soon as, the moment, while
等一连的时日状语从句,主句和从句时态基本大器晚成致。举个例子:As time passed,
things seemed to get worse。

(2) Strange as it may seem, nobody was injured in the accident.

  8. 原因状从:as 的用法。例句:The 新加坡 passengers begin to
decrease as other airlines spread their operating range。


表示“今后”意义的法则、时间和退让状语从句中多用日常以往时,而主句用通常以后时,被称之为“主将从现”。比如:汤姆won’t go to sleep unless his mother tells him a story。

这一次竟然纵然显得令人难以置信,却从没人受到损伤。

  9. 同位语从句:I want to know the answer to this question who will
be our next president。

Once I get him a job, he’ll be fine。

as, though表示“虽然……但是”,“纵使……”之意。

  原因状从: in that的用法。例句:


since辅导的年月状语从句多用通常过去时,而含有since从句的主句平日用明天形成时。比方:I
haven’t met her since I left university。

as指引的低头状语从句必得以局部倒装的花样现身,被倒装的一些能够是表语、状语或动词原形,though间或也用于那样的构造中,但although无法如此用。

  Privatization is thought to be beneficial in that it promotes
competition. 合营化的独特之处在于能推动相互竞争。

④在句式hardly/scarcely…when…, no
sooner…than…中,第八个分句中过去产生时,第三个分句用平日过去时。比如:She
had hardly sat down when the phone rang。

例如:

  10. 不定式:不定式做目标状语。例句:We get up very early to catch
the first bus。

⑤ 在as if/though
携带的状语从句中,假如表示后生可畏种与真情相反夸张,从句多用平日过去时或过去成功时。例如:She
stared at me as though I were a complete stranger。

Object as you may, I’ll go.

  文章来源:跨考教育[微博]

(5)状语从句的轻巧

(=Though/Although you may object, I’ll go.)

当从句的主语与主句的主语相同一时候,被动结构的状语从句,可粗略与主句相近的主语和助动词,保留连词+过去分词;主动社团的状语从句,可总结与主句雷同的主语和助动词,保留连词+现在分词。比如:We
all know that, if not carefully dealt with, the situation will get
worse。

就算你批驳,笔者也要去。

Though lacking money, his parents managed to send him to university。

Hard as/ though he works, he makes little progress. (=Though he works
hard, he makes little progress.)

(6)状语从句被用来强调组织中

就算她上学很卖力,但大致没获得哪些发展。   Child as/though he was, he
knew what was the right thing to do.(=Though he was a child, he knew
what was the right thing to do.)

状语从句作为被着重提出有个别用于重申协会时,后生可畏律用It is/was
…that…,无法用when代替that。句子用汇报语序。注意:当强调Not until
+时间/时间状语时,主句的谓语动词不再使用倒装语序。比如:It was not until
the war was over that the soldier was able to return home。

尽管他是三个孩子,但她明白该做什么。

  1. 名词性从句

Fast as you read, you can’t finish the book so soon.

(1)名词性从句分类:

即便你读得快,你也不能够那样快读完这本书。

依照在句中的功效,名词性从句分为:主语从句、宾语从句、表语从句和同位语从句种种。

(3) However hard he may try, he will not attain his goal.

(2) 名词性从句的连接词

任由她如何努力也达不到对象。

名词性从句的连接词可分为三类:that无词义,在从句中不担当成分,一时可被归纳;表示“是不是”用whether,唯有在宾语从句中,whether可被人if取代。Whether和if在从句中不担负成分。即便从句贫乏主语、表语、宾语、或定语等语句成分,用接二连三代词what,
whatever, who, whoever, whom, whose,
which;假如从句缺乏状语,用一而再再而三副词when, where, how, why。

4.as作提到代词的用法

由于三番两次代词与连接副词在句中不再是疑问句,因此从句中谓语不用难题语序。连接代词与连接副词在从句当做句子成分,而连续几天词whether
和if(是不是),在从句中不担当句子成分,只起三回九转成效。

关系代词as量体裁衣定语从句时,不仅可以够独立采用,也能够与任何词连用,其用法要比that和which更为复杂。

(3) 名词性从句中的特殊时态

(1)as指导定语从句与别的词连用

① 在偏下二种主语从句中,主语从句的谓语动词要用“should+动词原形”,
should可粗略。

①用于the same…as结构中

(1)It is+形容词+that…句型。家常便饭的形容词有important, necessary, natural,
funny, strange, surprising, astonishing(令人切齿的)等。

This is the same book as I read last week.

(2) It is +名词+that…句型。不足为道的名词有pity, shame, advice, suggestion,
proposal(建议,提议), requirement, request, desire, order等。

这本书和自个儿前一周读的这本是如出生机勃勃辙。

(3) It is+动词的过去分词+ that…句型。常见的动词有advise, order, propose,
request, suggest, demand, require等。

②用于such…as结构中

②在insist(百折不挠), urge (督促), order(命令), command(命令),
suggest(提议),advise(提议),recommend(提议,推荐),
request(乞求,供给),
demand(需求),require(供给,须求)等动词后的宾语从句中,谓语动词用“should+动词原形”,
should可归纳。

I don”t like such books as he recommends.

③ 在含有advice, order, demand, proposal(建议), requirement,
suggestion等名词的表语从句、同位语从句中,谓语动词用“should+动词原形”,should可粗略。

自己不爱好他援用的那一个书。

④在部分象征咋舌、恒心等心理色彩的名词性从句中,谓语动词用“should+动词原形”或“should
+have done”,译为“竟然,居然”。举个例子:

③用于”so +adj. + a/an + n. (单数) + as “结构中

I am surprised /shocked that you should speak in such a way。

I am not so strong a man as I was.

I find it astonishing that he should be so rude to his mum。

作者曾经远非过去那么强健了。

It is strange /surprising that she should not have been invited。

(2)as单独辅导定语从句
as单独辅导定语从句时,先行词能够是贰个词,也能够是三个句子或短语。

I am glad that your story should have won the first prize。

例如:

  1. 定语从句

(1) She is late, as is often the case.

(1)定语从句的分类

她迟到了,那是时常的事。

定语从句分为限定性定语从句非节制性定语从句三种。限定性定语从句对先行词起修饰和范围功用,而非节制性定语从句对先行词起补充和演讲表达效果与利益。日常限定性定语从句与先行词之间从未逗号,而非约束性定语从句与先行词之间有逗号隔离。

(先行词是一切主句)

(2)定语从句的涉嫌代词和关联副词

(2) To shut your eyes to facts, as many of you do, is foolish.

定语从句平日由关系代词和涉及副词带领。关系代词有:who, whom, whose,
which, that, as;关系副词有:when, where,
why。关系代词和涉及副词必得放在从句之首,主句的先行词之后,起着连续几日来先行词和从句的职能,相同的时间在从句中又充作句子成分。

对真相视若无睹–你们好几人都以这么的古板。

(3)关系代词和关系副词的用法:

(先行词是不定式短语)

①超过行词为人时用who
作主语,whom作宾语;②当先行词为物或任何句虎时用which,可作主语或宾语;③事先词为人、物时用that
,可作主语或宾语;④ whose用作定语,可指人或物;⑤
关系副词when指时间,在定语从句中作时间状语;⑥where(指地方,在定语从句中作地方状语);why指原因,在定语从句中作原因状语。

5.as作介词的用法 as作介词,意思是”作为”,”以……身份”

(4)节制性定语从句与非限制性定语从句的不相同

例如:

①约束性定语从句:从句与主句关系紧凑,去掉从句,主句意义破损,以至不合逻辑。比如:I
was the only person in our office who was
invited。(去掉定语从句,句意就不完全)

He came to China as a tourist five years ago.


非节制性定语从句:从句与先行词关系不细瞧,去掉定从句,意思还是平安无事。方式上用逗号隔开,不可能that用教导。举例:His
movie won several awards at the film festival, which was beyond his
wildest dream. (去掉定语从句,主句的意思仍完整)

他四年前以游客的地位来过中华。

(5)使用定语从句时需注意的多少个难题

6.as作副词的用法 to the same degree or amount; equally
“相同地”,”同样地”。

①用that而不用 which的情况:先行词为不定代词all, anything, nothing,
much…;先行词有最高档修饰,有序数词修饰;先行词有only, very,
any等词修饰;先行词既有人又有物时。比方:There is nothing that can
prevent him from doing it。

例如:

The first place that they visited in Guilin was Lijing。

They don”t have as many airplanes.

This is the best coffee maker that I have ever been made。

他们尚无相通多的飞行器。

Mr Smith is the only foreigner teacher that he knows。

二、动词ing情势的用法

② 用which而不用
that的情况:教导非节制性定语从句;指代整个主句的乐趣;用于介词 的背后+
关系代词。举个例子:Chan’s restaurant on Baker Street, which used to be
poorly run, is now a successful business. For many cities in the world,
there is no room to spread our further, of which New York is an
example。

一)Ving形式作定语

③ 关系代词as的用法

分词短语作定语时,放在被修饰的名词之后;

a. 当现行反革命词为 the same
+名词,such+名词时,要用关系代词as指点定语从句。例如:

单个分词作者定语时,放在被修饰的名词此前。

I want to buy the same shirt as yours。

例如:

Such machines as are used in our workshop are made in Germany。

The man standing by the window is our teacher. Many frightened people
rushed out of the burning building.  

b.
as可替代主句的始末,教导的非节制性定语从句既可放在主句以前,也可放在主句之后。常用于下列句型:as
is known to all, as is said, as is reported, as is announced, as we all
know, as I expect 等。譬喻: He got the first place again in this
mid-term examination, as we expected。

Ving作定语主要代表动作和用途。

c. as 辅导非约束性定语从句时与which的区分

  1. 意味着动作(主动的、进行的动作)。

当主句和从句语义生机勃勃致时,用as辅导;反之,用which来指点迷津非约束性定语从句;当非限制订语从句为否定意义时,常用which教导。举个例子:

a waiting car = the car that is waiting

He made a long speech, as we expected。

a sleeping child 入睡的儿女

lom599le百家娱乐登录,He made a long speech, which was unexpected。

The girl standing there is my sister.

④关联代词在从句中作主语时,从句的谓语动词单数如故用复数应由先行词决定。比如:

站在这里时的女孩是本人的姊妹。

The man who lives downstairs makes it a rule to run in the park in the
morning。

[注意]现今分词作者定语时,它代表的动作是正值拓宽或与谓语动词所表示的动作大约与此同有的时候间发生,如若八个动作有先有后,平日不可能用今后分词作者定语,而要用定语从句。

⑤ 指点定语从句的涉及副词不经常能够用“介词 + which”来顶替。比如:

举例: The teacher criticized the student who had broken the window.
先生商酌了打破窗户的学子。

October 1, 1949 was the day on which (= when) the new China was
founded。

  1. 意味着用途:

⑥在”介词+关系代词”结构中,关系代词只好用which和whom,且不可能轻便;假诺介词在句末,关系代词可用which,
that, whom, 口语中也可用who,且可总结。举例:

the waiting room = the room for waiting 候车室

The man (whom/ who/ that) you were talking about is proves to be
friendly。

a working method 专门的学问方法

上一页12345678910下一页

He has a reading room. 他有三个书屋。

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【比较】

过去分词作者定语:及物动词的过去分词表示被动,不如物动词的过去分词表示动作文不加点。
 

例如:

That is the book written by Lu Xun. 这是周豫才写的书。

He is a returned student. 他是多少个归国的留学子。

不定式作定语: 用不定式作定语,其日常所修饰的名词、代词有: meeting,
reason, time, way, need, right, chance, decision, wish, promise,
ability, anxiety, something, anything, nothing, anybody, somebody,
thing…

例如: We have no time to lose.

笔者们没不经常间(能够浪费)了。

That’s the plan to build the factory.

那便是建那座工厂的安排。

(二)Ving形式作宾语补足语

  1. 在keep, find, notice, have, feel, hear, see,
    leave…等动词后常用Ving情势作宾语补足语。 例如:

1) The boss kept the workers working the whole night.

老大高管让工人发愤忘食地干活。

2) We found the old lady lying in bed.

咱俩发掘这老太太躺在床的上面。

  1. 在感官动词:

see, hear, look at, notice, observe, feel, find…等及选取动词:have,
make, leave, keep,
get…等后既可以够用不定式也得以用Ving情势作宾语补足语。不定式(不带
to)表示经过或动作时不可失,Ving格局强调举行或及时情景。

例如:

I saw the lady crossing the street.

自个儿看到那位妇女在过马路。

We heard her sing two songs.

作者们听她唱了两首歌。

(三)Ving形式作主语
Ving格局具备动词和名词的质量,在句中起名词成效,可作主语。   Seeing is
believing.千闻不比一见。

It is no use arguing with him.

和她争辩从未用。

Ving方式作主语常用于下列句型:

【句型1】It is + 名词(或形容词) + 动名词 It is + no use /no  good/ a
waste of time so nice+ crying there.doing that.

例如:

1) It’s a waste of time waiting here. 在这里边等是浪费时间。

2) It’s so nice talking to you. 很欢腾和你谈话。

【句型2】 There is no + 动名词    

比方: There is no stopping of him. 无法阻挡他。

There was no telling of the difference. 不也许加以差异。

【注意】

① Ving格局和不定式都能够作主主语,Ving方式作主语表示日常或抽象的
数十次性行为,不定式作主语往往意味着具体的或二回性的动作。

例如:

Playing with fire is dangerous.(泛指玩火)

To play with fire will be dangerous.(指一切实动作)

但在It is no use / good, not any use / good, useless
等后必得用Ving情势。

② Ving格局作主语,谓语动词用单数。

如: Forgetting the past means betrayal.

忘记过去就表示戴绿帽子。

(四)Ving方式作表语
Ving方式具有形容词和名词的属性,在句中可作表语。作表语用的Ving方式有三种:

豆蔻梢头种用作名词,意气风发种用作形容词。

用作名词时,表达主语的剧情,就此提问时,用what ;

用作形容词时,表达主语的特征,用how进行咨询。

例如:

Her favourite job is teaching English.→ What is her favourite job?   It
is interesting to read such a story. → How is it to read such a story?

(五)Ving格局作宾语
Ving情势拥有动词和名词的品质,在句中起名词成效,可作宾语。

He is fond of playing football. I like swimming.
他很喜欢足球,笔者爱好游泳。

【注意】①admit, appreciate, avoid,consider, delay, dislike, enjoy,
escape, excuse, feel like, finish, forgive, give up, imagine, include,
keep, mention, mind, miss, practise, put off, resist, risk, suggest,
can’t help, can’t stand等动词后能够用Ving格局作宾语,但无法用不定式。

②forget, go on, like, mean, regret, remember, stop,
try等动词可带Ving形式或不定式作宾语,但意义上有分歧。

试比较:

I remember doing the exercise.

本身回忆做过练习。

I must remember to do it.

笔者一定要记着做这件事。

I tried not to go there.

本身灵机一动不去这里。

I tried doing it again.

自家试着又干了二次。

Stop speaking.  

别说话。

He stopped to talk.

他停下来讲话。

I mean to come early today.

本身打算昨日来早些。

Missing the train means waiting for another hour.

误了那趟高铁意味着再等一个钟头。

③在allow, advise, forbid, permit
等动词后平昔跟动词作宾语时,要用Ving情势,假使后边有名词或代词作者宾语,然后在跟动词作者宾语补足语时,其宾语补足语用带to的不定式。

例如:

We don’t allow smoking here. we don’t allow students to smoke.

④动词need, require,
want作“要求”解,其后跟动词作者它的宾语时,必得用Ving格局,或不定式的被动式,那时,Ving情势的积极情势表示被动意义。

例如:

The window needs (requires, wants) cleaning (to be cleaned).

⑤在短语devote to, look forward to, stick to, be used to, object to,
thank you for, excuse me for, be (kept) busy, be worth, have difficulty
/ trouble / problem(in), have a good / wonderful / hard time(in), feel
 like, get down to等后的动词也亟须用Ving格局。

例如:

I look forward to hearing from you soon.

⑥在love, hate,
prefer等动词后用Ving方式或不定式无大的区分。但讲话人抱有指的时候,平日用不定式。

⑦start, begin, continue在封面语中多后接动名词,在口语中多后接不定式。

⑧在should (would) like / love等后须用不定式。

【知识张开】 Ving方式的时态和语态

  1. Ving方式的时态
    Ving情势的时态分日常式和达成式三种,假设Ving方式的动作没有明了地意味着出时间是与谓语动词同不常间爆发或在谓语动词从前爆发,用Ving情势的日常式。

例如:

His coming will be of great  help to us.

设若Ving格局的动作爆发在谓语动词所表示的动作早先,经常用Ving格局的成就时态。

例如:

I’m sorry for not having kept my promise.

  1. Ving格局的语态
    主语是其意气风发Ving方式所代表的动作的对象时,Ving形式用被动语态。

被动语态由“being + 过去分词”或“having been +
过去分词”构成,后后生可畏种平常制止选拔。

例如:

He likes being helped.

He was afraid of being left at home.

在to be worth doing 句型中,Ving格局doing代表的是庸庸碌碌意义。

例 如:

The book is worth reading.

动词的-ing格局是土耳其(Turkey)语中国和亚洲谓语动词的生机勃勃种,它在句中可作主语、宾语、表语、定语、状语及补足语。

出于这种样式是由动词变化而来的,由此它兼具动词的部分特征,即可带自身的宾语和状语,进而构成动词
-ing短语。它一时态和语态的变迁,也会有否定方式及其复合结构格局。    

现以动词do为例,其生成情势如下:

复合结构格局在句中举足轻重作主语和宾语。作宾语时可用代词宾格或名词普通格加上动词的-ing情势。

后生可畏、
动词-ing情势作主语(平时指一个华而不实动作)时,它可一直置于主语地方,也可以用it作情势主语,而把作真正主语的动词-ing形式放在句子的后部。

例如:

  1. Knowing table manners will help you make a good impression.

  2. Having a cellphone also makes us feel safer, since we can call for
    help in case of an emergency.

  3. It’s no use crying over spilt milk. 4. His coming made us very happy.
    (复合结构作主语)

二、 动词-ing方式作宾语。

例如:

  1. Having good table manners means knowing how to use knives and forks,
    when to drink a toast and how to behave at the table.

  2. Do you prefer living in the zoo or living in the jungle?

  3. I really can’t understand you treating her like that.

[注意]

  1. 下列动词前边平日要用动词-ing形式作宾语。 enjoy, finish, stop, mind,
    suggest, practise, excuse(原 谅),appreciate, keep, risk(冒险), consider,
    admit, miss(遗失), imagine, avoid(幸免), delay(推迟) resist, cannot
    help等。

  2. 在need, want, require, be worth 等动词(短语)前面常用动词  
     -ing的主动情势表示被动意义。

例如:

The flowers want watering.

三、 动词-ing方式作表语(常指主语的内容、状态或质量等)。

例如:

My interests are reading  novels, playing football and singing songs.  
 

The film was so moving that we saw it twice.

四、 动词-ing形式作定语

单个的动词-ing格局作定语时,常置于所修饰的名词前边;动词-ing短语作定语时则常置于被修饰的词前边。

例如:

  1. English is the working language of most international. organizations,
    international trade and tourism.

  2. The building being built now will be our library.

五、 动词-ing形式作状语

动词-ing情势作状语时,能够表示时间、原因、伴随意况、条件、结果等。

例如:

  1. Hearing the good news, he jumped with great joy. (时间)

  2. Seeing nobody at home, he decided to leave them a note. (原因)

  3. The next moment the first wave swept her down, swallowing the garden.
    (伴随处境)

  4. In Sydney the Chinese team got 28 gold medals, ranking third of all
    the competing countries.

(结果) 注意:

  1. 动词-ing情势(短语)作状语时的多少个特点。


时日性。借使动词-ing情势所表表示的动作与谓语动词所表示的动作同不常间发生,则用常常式;如果动词-ing情势所代表的动作发生在谓语动词表示的动作从前则利用造成式。


语态性。应牵挂动词-ing方式与句子主语之间的关联是主谓关系如故动宾关系,据此来鲜明语态。

③ 人称的风流浪漫致性。动词-ing形式的逻辑主语应和语句的主语生龙活虎致。

  1. 动词-ing格局前能够加when, while,
    though等从属连词,那足以视为状语从句的省略。

例如:

When drinking to someone’s health, you raise your glasses, but the
glasses should not be touched. While visiting the city, they received a
warm welcome.

六、 动词-ing形式作补足语

例如:

  1. He found the wall being painted.

  2. With so many people communicating in English every day, it will
    become more and more important to have a good knowledge of English.    

日常,宾语补足语与宾语之间有着逻辑上的主谓关系,动词-ing方式作宾语补足语往往意味着其动作在承袭或举办中,用动词-ing作宾语补足语的大范围的动词有:

have, get, send, leave等使用动词;

see, hear, watch, observe, notice, catch, find, listen to,look
at等感官动词。

当那些动词用于被动语态时,作宾语补足语的动词-ing格局就相应变成了主语补足语。

三、with的用法

with结构是成都百货上千印度语印尼语复合结构中最常用的生机勃勃种。学好它对学好复合宾语结构、不定式复合结构、动名词复合结商谈单身主格结构均能起很关键的遵循。

意气风发、 with结构的结缘

它是由介词with或without+复合结构构成,复合结构作介词with或without的复合宾语,复合宾语中第黄金时代有个别宾语由名词或代词当做,首局部补足语由形容词、副词、介词短语、动词不定式或分词充当,分词能够是当今分词,也得以是过去分词。

With结构组成艺术如下

  1. with或without-名词/代词+形容词;

  2. with或without-名词/代词+副词;

  3. with或without-名词/代词+介词短语;

  4. with或without-名词/代词+动词不定式;

  5. with或without-名词/代词+分词。

下边分别比如:

1、 She came into the room,with her nose red because of cold.

(with+名词+形容词,作陪伴状语)

2、 With the meal over , we all went home.

(with+名词+副词,作时间状语)

3、The master was walking up and down with the ruler under his arm。

(with+名词+介词短语,作陪伴状语。)

The teacher entered the classroom with a book in his hand.

4、He lay in the dark empty house,with not a man ,woman or child to
say he was kind to me.

(with+名词+不定式,作陪伴状语)

He could not finish it without me to help him.

(without+代词 +不定式,作标准状语)

5、She fell asleep with the light burning.

(with+名词+今后分词 ,作陪伴状语)

6、Without anything left in the cupboard, she went out to get something
to eat.

(without+代词+过去分词,作为原因状语) 二、with结构的用法
在句子中with结构多数出任状语,表示作为艺术,伴随情状、时间、原因或规范(详见上述例句)。

With结构在句中也足以作定语

例如:

1.I like eating the mooncakes with eggs.

2.From space the earth looks like a huge water-covered globe with a few
patches of land sticking out above the water.

3.A little boy with two of his front teeth missing ran into the house.

三、 with结构的性状

1.
with结构由介词with或without+复合结构重新整合。复合结构中首先局地与第1盘部语法上是宾语和宾语补足语关系,而在逻辑上,却具有主谓关系,相当于说,可以用第意气风发局地作主语,第四盘部作谓语,构成一个句子。

例如:

With him taken care of,we felt quite relieved.(欣慰)→(He was taken good
care of.)

She fell asleep with the light burning. →(The light was burning.)

With her hair gone,there could be no use for them. →(Her hair was
gone.)

  1. 在with结构中,第生机勃勃有个别为人称代词时,则该用宾格代词。

例如: He could not finish it without me to help him.

四、 几点表明:

  1. with结构在句子中的地点:

with
结构在句中作状语,表示时间、条件、原因时常常位于句子后边,并用逗号与句子分开;表示方法和陪伴情状时相仿位于句子后边,不用逗号分开。

若with结构作定语,则位于所修饰的名词之后,平日不要逗号隔开分离。

  1. with结构作状语时,不定式、将来分词 、和过去分词的区分:

在with结构中,不定式、现在分词作者宾补,表示积极,不过不定式表示就要产生的动作,而现行反革命分词表示正在发生或发生了的动作;过去分词表示被动或实现。

例如: With the boy leading the way,we found he house easily.

(男儿童已领过路)

With the boy to lead the way,we will find the house easily tomorrow.

(男童几方今将辅导)He lay on the bed with the bedroom door
shut.(寝室被关着)

  1. with结构与日常的with短语的区别

with结构具备上述意义和特色,而”介词with+名词或代词(组)”组成的相仿的with短语在句子中能够作定语和状语。

作状语时,它能表示动作的点子、原因,但不可能代表时间、伴随和原则。在相符的with短语中,with前面所跟的不是复合结构,也常有未曾逻辑上的主谓关系。

  1. with结构与独立主格结构的涉及:
    with结构属于独立主格结构,但在结构上,with结构由介词with或without辅导,名词前有冠词、形容词、全部格代词或别的词类所修饰,结构较松懈;

而独立主格结构未有with或without教导,结构严密,名词前可用可不要修饰语。在句句法成效上,with结构能够作定语,独立主格结构则不可能;独立主格结构经常在句中作状语,但也足以作主语,而with结构则不能够。

独自己作主格在口语中不时用,往往由一个从句替代,而with结构较口语化,较常用。

例如: There were rows of white houses with trees in front of them.

(“with+复合宾语”结构,在句中作定语)

A strong man working a whole day could not jump this high.

(名词+现在分词构成的独自己作主格结构,作主语)

The boy said,turning to the man,his eyes opened wide and his hand
raised.

(独立主格结构,表示伴随情形或作为形式,作状语)

Then last night,I followed him here,and climbed in,sword in hand.

(名词+介词短语构成的单身主格结构,作状语,表示伴随意况)。

内容有一些多,下篇文章,作者将用大家的主意解读这三个成效词,大家的指标是最简便易行、最有意思、最精准的解决考场。

别的,想要通晓任何在备考过程中,此外内容的对象,请关怀小编的其余作品:

CATTI三级笔译备考日记(生龙活虎):真正发轫看书前,作者做了什么样?

CATTI意大利语三级笔译备考日记(二):汉语翻译英十大翻译工夫?作者脑子笨,就不可能说得简单题,详细点?

CATTI法语三级笔译备考日记(三):请叫本身管家,叫小编项目老总也得以

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