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Gender, education and work: The weaker sex

Boys are being outclassed by girls at both school and university, and
the gap is widening

在高二月高校阶段,男孩正被女孩超过,且间隔正日趋拉大。

“IT’S all to do with their brains and bodies and chemicals,” says Sir
Anthony Seldon, the master of Wellington College,
a**posh**English**boarding school**. “There’s
a**mentality**that it’s not cool for them to perform, that it’s not
cool to be smart,” suggests Ivan Yip, principal of the Bronx Leadership
Academy in New York. One school charges £25,000 ($38,000) a year and has
a**scuba-diving**club; the other serves subsidised lunches to most
of its pupils, a quarter of whom have**special needs**. Yet
both**are grappling with**the same problem: teenage boys are being
left behind by girls.

大器晚成所高档匈牙利语寄宿学园的校长AnthonySeldon称“那完全在于他们的大脑、身体和荷尔蒙”。LondonBronx Leadership
Academy委员长IvanYip称“他们布满感觉努力是不酷的,聪明是不酷的”。后边三个收取报酬3.8万港币一年并设有潜水俱乐部;而另一个为其抢先十分之五学子提供午饭补贴,51%的学员有特有传授供给。可是,它们都风流倜傥律致力于化解相仿问题:青年男孩远远滞后于女孩。

It is a problem that would have been unimaginable a few decades ago.
Until the 1960s boys spent longer and went further in school than girls,
and were more likely to graduate from university. Now, across the rich
world and in a growing number of poor countries, the balance
has**tilted**the other way. Policymakers who once fretted about
girls’ lack of confidence in science now spend their time dangling
copies of “Harry Potter” before surly boys. Sweden has commissioned
research into its “boy crisis”. Australia has devised a reading
programme called “Boys, Blokes, Books & Bytes”. In just a couple of
generations, one gender gap has closed, only for another to open up.

那是多个十多年前不可能想像的标题。直到19世纪70年间早前,男孩比女孩开销更长日子并获得更加高等教学育,且更有希望从大学结业。今后,无论是富裕世界如故进一层多的老少边穷国家,平衡向另外一方偏斜。曾经顾虑女孩贫乏科学信心的国策拟定者们,未来越多日子在强行男孩前边挥舞《HarryPorter》。瑞士政坛已委托了大器晚成项关于“男孩风险”的商量。澳大温尼伯联邦开展了风姿罗曼蒂克项”男孩,男子,书和比特”的项目。仅仅几代时间内,前壹特性别差别消失,而后黄金时代种性别差距又出新。

The**reversal**is laid out in a report published on March 5th by the
OECD, a Paris-based rich-country think-tank. Boys’ dominance just about
endures in maths: at age 15 they are, on average, the equivalent of
three months’ schooling ahead of girls. In science the results are
fairly even. But in reading, where girls have been ahead for some time,
a gulf has appeared. In all 64 countries and economies in the study,
girls outperform boys. The average gap is equivalent to
an**extra**year of schooling.

以浪漫之都为集散地的富甲一方世界智库OECD于3月5号公布了大器晚成份简报中显得了这种反转。男士在数学领域的主导地位大概会四处。在平均年龄13周岁时,男孩超过同岁数女孩八个月。在自然科学领域,男女学子表现非常。然则,在翻阅领域,女孩一贯维系抢先地位,且间隔变得更加大。在此项钻探所涉及的六13个国家和经济体中,女孩比男孩表现出色。女孩平均比男孩超前二个学年。

The OECD**deems**literacy**to be the most**important skill that
it assesses, since further learning depends on it. Sure enough, teenage
boys are 50% more likely than girls to fail to achieve basic proficiency
in any of maths, reading and science (see chart 1). Youngsters in this
group, with nothing to**build on**or**shine at**, are prone to
drop out of school altogether.

因进一层深造要求依赖读写本领,OECD将它看成评估中最要紧的本领。果真如此,在贯彻数学、阅读和自然科学的基本功用力时,年轻男孩比女孩多出一半的挫败或然。在此个部落的小朋友,因无所依附和无所杰出,而更有异常的大大概从这个学校退学。

To see why boys and girls fare so differently in the classroom,
first**look at**what they do outside it. The average 15-year-old
girl devotes five-and-a-half hours a week to homework, an hour more than
the average boy, who spends more time playing video games
and**trawling the internet**. Three-quarters of girls read for
pleasure, compared with little more than half of boys. Reading rates are
falling everywhere as screens draw eyes from pages, but boys are giving
up faster. The OECD found that, among boys who do as much homework as
the average girl, the gender gap in reading fell by nearly a quarter.

要精晓怎么男士和女孩子在堂上内展现出那样差异,先从教室之外活动动手。日常17岁女孩周周花销5.5钟头去做家庭作业,比平均男孩多一个钟头,他们花费越来越多时间玩电子游艺和上网。3/4的女孩子将阅读作为消遣,而独有二分之一多点的男人这么做。随着显示器稳步把眼光从书本挪开,世界上独具位置的阅读率正日益裁减,而匹夫下跌速度更加快。OECD开掘,在那么些和日常女子职业日常的男子中,在读书方面包车型地铁性别差别裁减了八分之四左右。

Once in the classroom, boys**long to**be out of it. They are twice
as likely as girls to report that school is a “waste of time”, and more
often turn up late. Just as teachers used to struggle to persuade girls
that science is not only for men, the OECD now urges parents and
policymakers to steer boys away from a version of**masculinity**that
ignores academic achievement. “There are different pressures on boys,”
says Mr Yip. “Unfortunately there’s a tendency where they try to**live
up to**certain expectations in terms of [bad] behavior.”

风华正茂上课,男士就期盼快点甘休。在告知中,多于女子2倍的男子以为上课是浪费时间,何况更一时迟到。仿佛过去教师努力说泰山压顶不弯腰女孩子自然科学并不只是男子领域,OECD这两天建议老人和战略拟定者引导汉子远远地离开将忽略学术成就作为男士气概表现的这种主张。Yip校长说:“男孩面前碰到着有滋有味的下压力。但不幸的是,他们总括在坏行为上不辜负被人可望。

Boys’**disdain**for school might have been less irrational when
there were plenty of jobs for uneducated men. But those days**have
long gone**. It may be that a bit of swagger helps in maths, where
confidence plays a part in boys’ lead (though it sometimes extends
to**delusion**: 12% of boys told the OECD that they were familiar
with the mathematical concept of “subjunctive scaling”, a red herring
that fooled only 7% of girls). But their lack of self-discipline drives
teachers crazy.

当已经有众多干活可供未受教育男子选择时,男孩轻渎学园还显得没那么非理性。可是那么些生活已经消失。可能有些自豪有利于男人学习数学,自信驱使男子超过(但不经常则成为豆蔻年华种幻觉:12%的男孩告诉OECD他们熟谙”虚构缩放“这一概念,而那意气风发假概念则只蒙骗到7%的女孩)。但她俩远远不足自律让名师很头痛。

Perhaps because they can be so insufferable, teenage boys are often
marked down. The OECD found that boys did much better in its anonymized
tests than in teacher assessments. The gap with girls in reading was a
third smaller, and the gap in maths—where boys were already ahead—opened
up further. In another finding that suggests a lack of even-handedness
among teachers, boys are more likely than girls to be forced to repeat a
year, even when they are of equal ability.

大概因为他们那样让人难以忍受,青年男孩日常给与十分的低分数。OECD发掘,男孩在无名测量检验中的表现好于教员职员和工人评估。在翻阅方面包车型客车性别差别减弱了一半;而在数学方面,已超过的男士将差别拉大。另大器晚成斟酌展现,因老师缺乏公正,尽管手艺非常。男人也比女生更有超级大可能被须求复读一年,

What is behind this discrimination? One possibility is that teachers
mark up students who are**polite, eager and stay out of fights**,
all**attributes**that are more common among girls. In some
countries, academic points can even be**dock**ed for bad behaviour.
Another is that women, who make up eight out of ten primary-school
teachers and nearly seven in ten lower-secondary teachers, favour their
own sex, just as male bosses have been shown to favour male underlings.
In a few places sexism is**enshrined**in law: Singapore
still**canes**boys, while**sparing**girls the rod.是什么

以致这种差别对待?生机勃勃种大概的表明是教师的天禀授予这些礼貌、热心和远隔争麻木不仁的学子越来越高分数,而这几个特点在女孩中特别广泛。在一些国度,以至会因不良行为而扣掉学业分数。另生龙活虎种恐怕是,女子,构成了五分四的小学教师的和左近70%的初级中学等教育师,更偏幸她们自身的性别,就像男人上级偏好男人下属平日。介怀气风发部分地点在法兰西网球国际赛前也可以有性别主义:新加坡照旧允许鞭刑男子,而女子则免于该刑事诉讼法。

Some countries provide an environment in which boys can do better. In
Latin America the gender gap in reading is relatively small, with boys
in**Chile**,**Colombia**,**Mexico**and**Peru**trailing
girls less than they do elsewhere. Awkwardly, however, this nearly
always**comes with**a wider gender gap in maths,**in favour
of**boys. The reverse is true, too: Iceland, Norway and Sweden, which
have got girls up to parity with boys in maths, struggle with
uncomfortably wide gender gaps in reading. Since 2003, the last occasion
when the OECD did a big study, boys in a few countries have caught up in
reading and girls in several others have significantly narrowed the gap
in maths. No country has managed both.

在有一点国家为男孩表现美好提供了意况。在拉美,阅读方面包车型客车性别差别相对超级小。如智利、哥伦比亚共和国、墨西哥和秘鲁(Peru卡塔尔(英语:State of Qatar)的男士落后于女孩子小于其余地点。不过,令人郁结的是,那总伴随着男子在数学方面当先于女人的差距加大。反过来也构建。女孩与男孩在数学方面表现拾分的冰岛、Noreg和瑞士联邦,挣扎于令人眼红的逐级加宽的读书方面性别差别。自2000年OECD最终贰遍就此开展的广大考察展现,少数国度男人在翻阅方面境遇了女子,而在另朝气蓬勃部分国家女人成功减少了数学方面包车型地铁间隔。但尚无国家成功实现双方。

Girls’ educational dominance**persists**after school. Until a few
decades ago men were in a clear majority at university almost everywhere
(see chart 2), particularly in advanced courses and in science and
engineering. But as higher education has boomed worldwide, women’s
enrolment has increased almost twice as fast as men’s. In the OECD women
now make up 56% of students enrolled, up from 46% in 1985. By 2025 that
may rise to 58%.

中教自此,女人的抢先地位继续保障。直至新近五十几年,男子大约占领大学的主流人群,特别是不利与工程领域的高阶课程。可是,随着高教在世界范围的生机勃勃,女人入学拉长率差相当的少两倍于男人。在OECD报告表明了,女性注册率由1983年的56%进步至1/3,到2025年或者回升至四分之二。

Even in the handful of OECD countries where women are in the minority on
campus, their numbers**are creeping up**. Meanwhile several,
including America, Britain and parts of Scandinavia, have 50% more women
than men on campus. Numbers in many of America’s elite private colleges
are more evenly balanced. It is widely believed that their opaque
admissions criteria are relaxed for men.

lom599le百家娱乐登录,尽管在少数女人是少数人全的OECD国家,女人数量也再稳步攀升。与此同时,一些席卷United States、英国和亚洲国度,女子比男子人口多于四分之二。在广大U.S.奇才公立高校中,性别比例越来越平衡。大多个人感觉那几个大学的不透明招生规范更加的偏好雄性人类。

The feminisation of higher education was so gradual that for a long time
it passed unremarked. According to Stephan Vincent-Lancrin of the OECD,
when in 2008 it published a report pointing out just how far it had
gone, people “couldn’t believe it”.

高等教育的女子化进度如此缓慢,甚至于在相当长日子内未被人发掘。据OECD的Stephan
Vincent-Lancrin称,当2010年豆蔻梢头份有关告知摘马上,大家“不相信任那结果”。

Women who go to university are more likely than their male peers to
graduate, and typically get better grades. But men and women tend to
study different subjects, with many women choosing courses in education,
health, arts and the humanities, whereas men take up computing,
engineering and the**exact sciences**. In mathematics women
are**drawing level**; in the life sciences, social sciences,
business and law they have moved ahead.

进去高校的女人,相对于她们的男性同僚,更有不小希望结业,且拿到越来越好地培养。不过,男子和女子所选科目标趋势分化。更加多地女子采纳教育、健康、艺术和人法学科,而男子越来越多选取Computer、工程和小巧科学等科目。在数学方面,女子正长期以来,而在不利、社科、商业和法律方面,她们处于当先地位。

Social change has done more to encourage women to enter higher education
than any deliberate policy.**The Pill**and a decline in the average
number of children, together with later marriage and childbearing, have
made it easier for married women to join the workforce. As more women
went out to work, discrimination became less**sharp**. Girls saw the
point of study once they were expected to have careers. Rising divorce
rates underlined the importance of being able to provide for yourself.
These days girls nearly everywhere seem more ambitious than boys, both
academically and in their careers. It is hard to believe that in 1900-50
about half of jobs in America were barred to married women.

对立于任何蓄意的方针,社会变革更方便于慰勉女人步向高教。口性格很顽强在荆棘载途或巨大压力面前不屈避孕片和平均育儿数量的下挫,以至晚婚和晚育等,为已婚女人寻找专门的工作提供了低价。随着越多女子走入职业条件,歧视变得没那么分明。生龙活虎旦女子被期望全数专门的学业发展时,女孩就认识到学习的基本点。上涨的离异率使得女子意识到自家供养的首要。如今,无论是学业上也许职场上,世界各州的女孩比男孩表现出更宿州想。无缘无故,在19社会风气上半叶,差不离大半U.S.A.做事禁绝已婚女人从事。

So are women now on their way to becoming the dominant sex? Hanna
Rosin’s book, “The End of Men and the Rise of Women”, published in 2012,
argues that in America, at least, women are ahead not
only**educationally**but increasingly
also**professionally**and**socially**. Policymakers in many
countries worry about the**prospect**of a
growing**underclass**of**ill-educated men**. That should worry
women, too: in the past they have typically married men in their own
social group or above. If there are too few of those, many women will
have**to marry down**or not at all.

那么,女人是或不是逐步改为基特性别?出版于贰零壹贰年的Ranna Rosin的《The End
of Men and the Rise of
Women》中提议,最少在U.S.,女人不仅仅教育上打头,还在事情上和社会上超过。许多国家的陈设制定者顾虑数量日益攀升的下层阶级的教育程度异常低的男子的前景前途。女人也相应顾虑那一点。在过去,女子平凡与同阶层或超过自个儿阶层的男人成婚。若是这种男子很少,大相当多女人只好寻觅下阶层男子或接受不成婚。

According to the OECD, the return on investment in a degree is higher
for women than for men in many countries, though not all. In America
PayScale, a company that**crunches**incomes data, found that the
return on investment in a college degree for women was lower than or at
best the same as for men. Although women as a group are now better
qualified, they earn about three-quarters as much as men. A big reason
is the choice of subject: education, the humanities and social work pay
less than engineering or computer science. But academic research shows
that women attach less importance than men to the graduate pay premium,
suggesting that a high financial return is not the main reason for their
further education.

据OECD彰显,虽不是漫天,可是在数不胜数国度,高教投入对女子的报恩超越男人。一家募集收入多少的营业所America
PayScale发掘,女人对于大学文化水平的投资报酬率相对于男性来说,超级低或(在特别景况下)相像。就算女人完全表现更为,但他俩薪酬水平仅为男人的3/4。主因在于相对于工程或微微处理机科学等,女人选用教育、人文和社会科学那类报酬相当低科目。然则,学术探究展现相对于男性,女子更加少的关怀薪金,展现了谋求高回报实际不是女子追求高教的严重性原因。

At the highest levels of business and the professions, women remain
notably scarce. In a reversal of the pattern at school, the anonymous
and therefore gender-blind essays and exams at university protect female
students from bias. But in the workplace, says Elisabeth Kelan of
Britain’s Cranfield School of Management, “traditional patterns assert
themselves in miraculous ways”. Men and women join the medical and legal
professions in roughly equal numbers, but 10-15 years later many women
have chosen unambitious career paths or dropped out to spend time with
their children. Meanwhile men**are rising through the ranks**as
qualifications gained long ago fade in importance and personality,
ambition and experience come to matter more.

在高高的层级的购销和标准领域,女子依然比较少。女人在母校所显现优势被逆袭。在全校,散文及考试评价是无名的,性别因素被防止,而爱慕女子不受性别歧视的影响。然则,来自于大不列颠及英格兰联合王国CraneField法大学的Elisabeth
Kelan称,在办事场合古板格局再度证实本人。同等数量的男子和女人参预理高校和法则高校,然则,10-15年以往,好些个女子选用了特别干燥的营生路线或开支越来越多时光陪孩子。与此同期,随着以前习得的经历的显要渐渐毁灭而性格、雄心和经验成为更为主要的熏陶因素,男性在职业层级上逐级攀升。

For a long time it was said that since women had historically
been**underrepresented**in university and work, it would take time
to fill the pipeline from which senior appointments were made. But after
40 years of making up the majority of graduates in some
countries,**that argument is wearing thin**. According to Claudia
Goldin, an economics professor at Harvard, the “last chapter” in the
story of women’s rise—equal pay and access to the best jobs—will not
come without big structural changes.

不短大器晚成段时间以来,流传着生龙活虎种说法:因历史范围来看,无论是学院也许职场,女子所占比例相差,由此必要时刻去构建通往高层职位的水渠。不过40年以来,一些国度毕业生人数中女子变成主流,那项论证更加的站不住脚。据新加坡国立高校历史学教授ClaudiaGoldin称,女人崛起的终极环节–平等的报酬和精品专门的工作或许–若不开展小幅度布局调节是不会赶到。

In a recent paper in the American Economic Review Ms Goldin found that
the difference between the hourly earnings of highly qualified men and
their female peers grows hugely in the first 10-15 years of working
life, largely because of a big**premium**in some highly paid jobs on
putting in long days and being constantly on call. On the whole men find
it easier than women to work in this way. Where such jobs are common,
for example in business and the law, the gender pay gap remains wide and
even**short spells**out of the workforce are severely penalised,
meaning that**motherhood**can**exact**a heavy price. Where pay
is roughly proportional to hours worked, as in pharmacy, it is low.

在AEPAJERO的流行文献中,高尔德in女士发觉高水平劳引力中,在做事生活的10到15年间,男子时辰薪俸与女子差距宏大,重要原因在于高收益专门的学业的小幅奖金决议于长日子工作和任何时候应对电话为前提。全体来说,男人绝对于女人更擅长如此行事。在这里种职业章程布满的世界,如商业和法则,性别薪水差距照旧相当的大。并且,以至短时间离开工作境况也或然招致严重惩办,意味着老母索要交给相当的大代价。而当职业薪俸首要依赖理工程师时长度时,就像配药房,性别薪资差距非常的小。

There will always be jobs where flexibility is not an option, says Ms
Goldin: those of CEOs, trial lawyers, surgeons, some bankers and senior
politicians come to mind. In many others, pay does not need to depend on
being**available all hours**—and well-educated men who want a life
outside work would benefit from change, too. But the new gender gap is
at the other end of the pay spectrum. And it is not women who are
suffering, but unskilled men.

Goldin女士称:某些工作是难以完毕灵活性的,如同那叁个主管s、法院开庭审判律师、男科医师、银行家和一些著名政客们。而此外其余职业,薪俸实际不是在于随即待命。同期,受过优异教育且想要脱离专门的工作的男子也会从当中受益。可是,新的性别差距坐落于薪金范围的另风度翩翩端。受苦的决不女人,而是无技巧的男子。

Some people think that it is better to educate boys and girls in
separate schools. Others, however, believe that boys and girls benefit
more from attending mixed schools. Discuss both these views and give
your own opinion.

  Girls outperform boys in school exams

Some countries have single-sex education models, while in others both
single sex and mixed schools co-exist and it is up to the parents or the
children to decide which model is preferable.

  Vocabulary: education: 词汇:教育

Some educationalists think that it is more effective to educate boys and
girls in single-sex schools because they believe this environment can
reduce distractions and encourage pupils concentrate on their studies.
This is probably true to some extent. It also allow more equality among
pupils and gives more opportunity to all those at the school to choose
subject more freely without gender prejudice. For example, a much higher
proportion of girls study science to a high level when they attend
girls’ schools than their counterpart in mixed schools do. Similarly,
boys in single-sex schools are more likely to take cookery classes and
to study languages, which are often thought of as traditional subjects
for girls.

  Around the world, girls do better than boys at school。 These are
the findings of a recent study that looked at the test results of 1.5
million 15-year-olds in 74 regions across the globe。

On the other hand, some experts would argue that mixed schools prepare
their pupils for their future lives. Girls and boys learn to live
together from an early age and are consequently not emotionally
underdeveloped in their relations with the opposite sex. They are also
able to learn each other, and to experience different types of skill and
talent than might be evident in a single gender environment.

  The level of gender equality in those regions made no difference to
the results。 Other factors, such as the income level of the region
also had little impact on the findings。 In only three regions –
Colombia, Costa Rica and the Indian state Himachal Pradesh – was the
trend reversed with boys doing better。

Personally, I think that there are advantages to both systems. I went to
a mixed school, but feel that myself missed the opportunity to
specialise in cookery because it was seen as the natural domain and
career path for girl. So because of that, I would have preferred to go
to a boys’ school. But hopefully times have changed, and both genders of
student can have equal chances to study what they want to in whichever
type of school they attend.

  So what are the causes of girls’ stronger performance? In the UK,
girls outperform boys in exams that are taken at the age of 15 or 16,
called GCSEs。 According to education expert Ian Toone, this is down to
the way girls and boys are brought up。 “Boys are encouraged to be more
active from an early age, whereas the restless movements of baby girls
are pacified… Hence, girls develop the skill of sitting still for
longer periods of time, which is useful for academic pursuits like
studying for GCSEs。“

  He goes on to say that boys often cluster together in larger groups
than girls。 Because of this they are more likely to be influenced by
peer pressure and develop a gang mentality。 He says that GCSEs require
a lot of solo work and are not viewed as ‘cool’ in a laddish culture。

  This is backed up by research in the UK that says girls are
out-performing boys at the age of five。 So what is the answer? Should
girls and boys be educated separately? Or do exams and school curricula
need to be changed to better reflect boys’ skills? These are the
questions facing educators in many countries。

  Glossary 词汇表

  gender equality男女同样

  factor因素

  income level收入水平

  to reverse a trend翻盘生龙活虎种倾向

  to pacify使安静、平定

  academic pursuit学术追求

  to cluster(人)聚集

  to influence影响

  peer pressure同龄人压力

  gang mentality黑道心态

  solo单独的,独自地

  cool酷

  laddish幼稚的,孩子气的

  school curricula学园课程

  to reflect反映

  小说来源:BBC

见习编辑:王雨欣 小编:赵润琰

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